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Engine/transmission - removal and refitting
Engine removal and general engine overhaul procedures / Engine/transmission - removal and refitting


Warning: Petrol is extremely flammable, so take extra precautions when disconnecting any part of the fuel system. Dont smoke, or allow naked flames or bare light bulbs in or near the work area, and dont work in a garage where a natural gas appliance (such as a clothes dryer or water heater) is installed. If you spill petrol on your skin, rinse it off immediately. Have a fire extinguisher rated for petrol fires handy, and know how to use it.

Note: Read through the entire Section, as well as reading the advice in the preceding Section, before beginning this procedure. The engine and transmission are removed as a unit, lowered to the ground and removed from underneath, then separated outside the vehicle.

Removal
1 Park the vehicle on firm, level ground, apply the handbrake firmly, and slacken the nuts securing both front roadwheels.

2 Relieve the fuel system pressure (see Chapter 4).

3 Disconnect the battery negative (earth) lead - see Chapter 5, Section 1. For better access the battery may be removed completely (see Chapter 5).

4 Place protective covers on the wings and engine compartment front crossmember, then remove the bonnet (see Chapter 11).

5 Whenever you disconnect any vacuum lines, coolant and emissions hoses, wiring loom connectors, earth straps and fuel lines as part of the following procedure, always label them clearly, so that they can be correctly reassembled.

6 Unplug the two electrical connectors, disconnect the vacuum hose (where fitted) and disconnect the crankcase breather hose from the cylinder head cover, then remove the complete air cleaner assembly, with the air mass meter, the resonator and the plenum chamber (see Chapter 4).

7 Equalise the pressure in the fuel tank by removing the filler cap, then undo the fuel feed and return lines connecting the engine to the chassis (see Chapter 4). Plug or cap all open fittings (see illustration).

4.7 Note colour-coding of unions when disconnecting fuel feed and return
4.7 Note colour-coding of unions when disconnecting fuel feed and return lines

8 Disconnect the accelerator cable from the throttle linkage as described in Chapter 4 - where fitted, also disconnect the cruise control actuator cable (see Chapter 12).

Secure the cable(s) clear of the engine/transmission.

9 Releasing its wire clip, unplug the power steering pressure switch electrical connector, then unbolt the power steering high-pressure pipe and the earth lead from the cylinder head rear support plate/engine lifting eye (see illustrations).

4.9A Unplug the power steering pressure switch electrical connector . . .
4.9A Unplug the power steering pressure switch electrical connector . . .

4.9B . . . unbolt the power steering highpressure pipe . . .
4.9B . . . unbolt the power steering highpressure pipe . . .

4.9C . . . and the earth lead from the cylinder head rear support
4.9C . . . and the earth lead from the cylinder head rear support plate/engine lifting eye

10 Marking or labelling all components as they are disconnected (see paragraph 5 above), disconnect the vacuum hoses as follows:
(a) One from the rear of the throttle housing (only the one hose - there is no need to disconnect the second hose running to the fuel pressure regulator) (see illustration).

4.10A Disconnect vacuum hose shown from rear of throttle housing . . .
4.10A Disconnect vacuum hose shown from rear of throttle housing . . .

(b) One from the union on the inlet manifolds left-hand end (see illustration).

4.10B . . . vacuum hose (arrowed) from union on left-hand end on inlet
4.10B . . . vacuum hose (arrowed) from union on left-hand end on inlet manifold . . .

(c) The braking system vacuum servo unit hose - from the inlet manifold (see Chapter 9 for details).

(d) Also disconnect the vacuum hoses from the Exhaust Gas Recirculation system components - one from the EGR valve, two from the EGR pipe (note that these last two are of different sizes, as are their pipe stubs, so that they can only be connected the correct way round).

(e) While you are there, trace the vacuum line from the pulse-air filter housing over the top of the transmission, and disconnect it by pulling the plastic pipe out of the rubber hose just beneath the bulkheadmounted pulse-air solenoid valve (see illustration).

4.10C . . . also brake servo hose (A), EGR valve hose (B), EGR pipe hoses (C)
4.10C . . . also brake servo hose (A), EGR valve hose (B), EGR pipe hoses (C) - noting their different sizes - and pulse-air filter vacuum line (D)

(f) Secure all these hoses so that they wont get damaged as the engine/transmission is removed.

11 Unbolt the engine/transmission-to-body earth lead from the transmissions top surface (see illustration). Disconnect the speedometer drive cable (see Chapter 12) and secure it clear of the engine/transmission.

4.11 Unbolt the engine/transmission-tobody earth lead - hidden behind wiring
4.11 Unbolt the engine/transmission-tobody earth lead - hidden behind wiring loom guide - from location (arrowed) on the transmissions top surface

12 Where the vehicle is fitted with manual transmission, disconnect the clutch cable (see Chapter 8). Where automatic transmission is fitted, disconnect the selector cable (see Chapter 7, Part B). Secure the cable clear of the engine/transmission.

13 Marking or labelling all components as they are disconnected (see paragraph 5 above), disconnect the engine wiring loom from the body as follows: (a) Starting at the left-hand side of the engine compartment, release and unplug the three large electrical connectors clipped to the suspension mounting - note the wire clips fitted to some connectors (see illustration).

4.13A Unplug three large electrical connectors (arrowed) . . .
4.13A Unplug three large electrical connectors (arrowed) . . .

(b) Disconnect and/or release the battery-tostarter motor wiring, noting the single connector which must be unplugged.

(c) Unplug the electrical connector(s) to disconnect the vehicle speed sensor, oxygen sensor and, where fitted, the oil level sensor wiring - unclip the connectors to release the wiring where necessary.

(d) Work along the loom to the bulkhead, unclipping the loom and unplugging the various bulkhead-mounted components connected into it, until you reach the right-hand side of the engine compartment (see illustration).

4.13B . . . unplug engine wiring loom from battery wiring and bulkhead
4.13B . . . unplug engine wiring loom from battery wiring and bulkhead components (arrowed) . . .

(e) Carefully prise the power steering fluid reservoir upwards out of its clip on the suspension mounting, then unscrew the ECU connectors retaining bolt and unplug the connector (see illustration).

4.13C . . . and disconnect ECU wiring and earth lead (arrowed) to release
4.13C . . . and disconnect ECU wiring and earth lead (arrowed) to release engine wiring loom from vehicle body

(f) Unbolt the earth lead from the right-hand inner wing panel, release the engine wiring loom and refit the power steering fluid reservoir.

(g) Secure the engine wiring loom neatly to the engine/transmission so that it cannot be damaged as the unit is removed from the vehicle.

14 Unbolt both parts of the exhaust manifold heat shield; unclip the coolant hose to allow the upper part to be withdrawn.

15 Remove the auxiliary drivebelt (see Chapter 1).

16 Unbolt the power steering pump (see Chapter 10); secure it as far as possible (without disconnecting the systems hoses) clear of the engine/transmission.

17 Raise the vehicle and support it securely on axle stands, then remove the front roadwheels. Drain the cooling system and (if the engine is to be dismantled) drain the engine oil and remove the oil filter (see Chapter 1). Also drain the transmission as described in the relevant Part of Chapter 7.

18 Withdraw the lower part of the exhaust manifold heat shield.

19 Unscrew the nuts to disconnect the exhaust system front downpipe from the manifold, then unhook all the systems rubber mountings and withdraw the complete exhaust system from under the vehicle (see Chapter 4 for details).

20 Where the vehicle is fitted with manual transmission, mark their positions, then disconnect the gearchange linkage and transmission support rods from the rear of the transmission. Unscrew the retaining nuts, and withdraw the gear linkage heat shield from the underbody. Unbolt the rear end of the linkage from the underbody, swivel the linkage around to the rear, and tie it to the underbody (see Chapter 7, Part A, for details).

21 Disconnect both anti-roll bar links from their respective suspension strut - note the flexible brake hose bracket attached to each link stud - and both track rod ends from their steering knuckles. Unfasten the clamp bolt securing each front suspension lower arm balljoint to its steering knuckle (see Chapter 10 for details). Check that both balljoints can be released from the knuckle assemblies when required, but leave them in place for the time being, secured by the clamp bolts if necessary.

22 Where the vehicle is fitted with air conditioning, unbolt the accumulator/ dehydrator from the subframe; secure it as far as possible (without disconnecting the systems hoses) clear of the engine/ transmission.

Warning: Do not disconnect the refrigerant hoses.

23 Unbolt the steering gear from the subframe; if the bolts are not accessible from above, a Ford service tool will be required to reach them from underneath the vehicle (see Chapter 10 for details).

24 Unscrew the two bolts securing the power steering system pipes to the right-hand side of the subframe.

25 Hold the radiator in its raised position, by inserting split pins through the holes in the rear of the engine compartment front crossmember and into the radiators upper mounting extensions. Unbolt the radiator mounting brackets from the subframe; note that they are handed, and are marked to ensure correct refitting (see illustrations).

Collect and store the bottom mounting rubbers for safekeeping, noting which way up they are fitted.

4.25A Use split pins as shown to secure radiator in its raised position . . .
4.25A Use split pins as shown to secure radiator in its raised position . . .

4.25B . . . while you unbolt the bottom mountings (arrowed) - note that the
4.25B . . . while you unbolt the bottom mountings (arrowed) - note that the mountings are handed, and do not lose the mounting rubbers

26 Unbolt the engine/transmission rear mounting from the subframe - where the vehicle is fitted with automatic transmission, a separate damper may be fitted beneath the subframe, which must be unbolted to reach the mountings fasteners. Where the vehicle is fitted with manual transmission, also unscrew the mounting centre bolt, and unbolt the mounting bracket from the transmission.

27 Unscrew the engine/transmission front mounting centre bolt, and unbolt the mounting from the subframe, noting the location of the wiring connector bracket.

28 Use white paint or similar (do not use a sharp-pointed scriber, which might break the underbody protective coating and cause rusting) to mark the exact relationship of the subframe to the underbody. Unscrew the four mounting bolts from the subframe (note their different-sized washers - see also illustration 4.47A) and allow the subframe to hang down on the suspension lower arm balljoints.

Disconnect the balljoints one at a time from the steering knuckle assemblies (see Chapter 10) and lower the subframe to the ground; withdraw the subframe from under the vehicle.

29 Marking or labelling all components as they are disconnected (see paragraph 5 above) and catching as much as possible of the escaping coolant in the drain tray, disconnect the cooling system hoses and pipes as follows - refer to Chapter 3 for further details, if required:
(a) Remove the radiator top hose.

(b) Remove the (heater) hose running from the thermostat to the engine compartment bulkhead union.

(c) Disconnect from the thermostat the hose running to the expansion tank - secure the hose clear of the working area.

(d) Disconnect from the thermostat the coolant hose/pipe which runs to the radiator bottom hose.

(e) Disconnect the radiator bottom hose from the radiator union, from the (sump) heater coolant pipe and from the water pump union - secure the hose clear of the working area.

(f) Unbolt the (heater) coolant pipe from the sump, trace the pipe/hose round to the engine compartment bulkhead union, disconnecting (where fitted) the oil cooler hoses from the cooler unions, then remove it.

(g) Unless the vehicle has air conditioning fitted, secure the radiator as far forwards as possible while it is in its raised position; if air conditioning is fitted, remove the radiator completely (see Chapter 3).

30 Where the vehicle is fitted with air conditioning, unplug the compressors electrical connector, and unbolt the compressor from the engine (see illustration). Secure it as far as possible (without disconnecting the systems hoses) clear of the engine/transmission.

4.30 Unscrew bolts (arrowed) to release air conditioning compressor from
4.30 Unscrew bolts (arrowed) to release air conditioning compressor from engine

Warning: Do not disconnect the refrigerant hoses.

31 Where the vehicle is fitted with manual transmission, disconnect the driveshafts from the transmission as follows, referring to Chapter 8 for further details when required: (a) Unscrew the nuts securing the right-hand driveshaft support bearing, and withdraw the heat shield.

(b) Pull the right-hand driveshaft out of the transmission; be prepared to catch any spilt oil.

(c) Secure the driveshaft clear of the engine/transmission - remember that the unit is to be lowered out of the vehicle - and ensure that the inner joint is not turned through more than 18.

(d) Prise the left-hand driveshaft out of the transmission - again, be prepared for oil spillage. Secure the driveshaft clear of the engine/transmission, and ensure that its inner joint is not turned through more than 18.

32 Where the vehicle is fitted with automatic transmission, proceed as follows, referring to Chapter 7, Part B and to Chapter 8 for further details when required:
(a) Unscrew its centre bolt, then unbolt the engine/transmission rear mounting bracket from the transmission.

(b) Disconnect the fluid cooler pipe from the rear of the transmission, and secure it clear of the unit.

(c) Prise the left-hand driveshaft out of the transmission; be prepared to catch any spilt oil.

(d) Secure the driveshaft clear of the engine/transmission - remember that the unit is to be lowered out of the vehicle - and ensure that the inner joint is not turned through more than 18.

(e) Unscrew the nuts securing the right-hand driveshaft support bearing, and withdraw the heat shield.

(f) Pull the right-hand driveshaft out of the transmission - again, be prepared for oil spillage. Secure the driveshaft clear of the engine/transmission, and ensure that its inner joint is not turned through more than 18.

(g) Disconnect the fluid cooler pipe from the front of the transmission, and secure it clear of the unit.

33 The engine/transmission unit should now be hanging on the right- and left-hand mountings only, with all components which connect it to the rest of the vehicle disconnected or removed and secured well clear of the unit. Make a final check that this is the case, then ensure that the body is securely supported, high enough to permit the withdrawal of the engine/transmission unit from underneath; allow for the height of the engine dolly, if used.

34 Take the weight of the engine/ transmission unit, using the lifting eyes provided on the cylinder head. Unscrew the six nuts securing the right-hand mounting bracket, then the three nuts securing the lefthand bracket.

Warning: Do not put any part of your body under the vehicle, or under the engine/transmission unit, when they are supported only by a hoist or other lifting equipment.

35 Lower the engine/transmission to the ground, and withdraw it from under the vehicle (see illustration).

4.35 Lowering the engine/transmission unit out of the vehicle
4.35 Lowering the engine/transmission unit out of the vehicle

36 Referring to the relevant part of Chapter 7, separate the transmission from the engine.

37 While the engine/transmission is removed, check the mountings; renew them if they are worn or damaged. Similarly, check the condition of all coolant and vacuum hoses and pipes (see Chapter 1); components that are normally hidden can now be checked properly, and should be renewed if there is any doubt at all about their condition. Where the vehicle is fitted with manual transmission, take the opportunity to overhaul the clutch components (see Chapter 8). It is regarded by many as good working practice to renew the clutch assembly as a matter of course, whenever major engine overhaul work is carried out. Check also the condition of all components (such as the transmission oil seals) disturbed on removal, and renew any that are damaged or worn.

Refitting
38 Refitting is the reverse of the removal procedure, noting the following points.

Tighten all fasteners to the torque wrench settings given; where settings are not quoted in the Specifications Sections of the two Parts of this Chapter, refer to the Specifications Section of the relevant Chapter of this manual.

39 In addition to the points noted in paragraph 37 above, always renew any circlips and self-locking nuts disturbed on removal.

40 Where wiring, etc, was secured by cable ties which had to be cut on removal, ensure that it is secured with new ties on refitting.

41 With all overhaul operations completed, refit the transmission to the engine as described in Chapter 7.

42 Manoeuvre the engine/transmission unit under the vehicle, attach the hoist, and lift the unit into position until the right- and left-hand mountings can be reassembled; tighten the (new) nuts only lightly at this stage. Do not yet release the hoist; the weight of the engine/transmission unit must not be taken by the mountings until all are correctly aligned.

43 Using new circlips, and ensuring that the inner joints are not twisted through too great an angle (see Chapter 8), refit the driveshafts.

Where the vehicle is fitted with manual transmission, the procedure is the reverse of that outlined in paragraph 31 above. Where the vehicle is fitted with automatic transmission, proceed as follows, referring to Chapter 7, Part B and to Chapter 8 for further details when required:
(a) Refit the left-hand driveshaft.

(b) Using the clips provided to ensure that they are correctly routed, and tightening the couplings to the specified torque wrench setting where possible, reconnect the fluid cooler pipes, first to the rear, then to the front, of the transmission.

(c) Refit the right-hand driveshaft to the transmission, refit the heat shield, and tighten the support bearing nuts to the specified torque wrench setting.

(d) Refit the engine/transmission rear mounting bracket to the transmission, tightening the bolts to the torque wrench setting specified, then refit the mounting, tightening the centre bolt only lightly at this stage.

44 Where the vehicle is fitted with air conditioning, do not forget to refit the compressor; tighten the bolts to the specified torque wrench setting, and plug in its electrical connector.

45 Using the marks and notes made on removal, refit the cooling system hoses.

Where they are left disconnected or unclipped for the time being, do not forget to secure them at the appropriate moment during the reassembly procedure. Refit the radiator (if removed), using split pins to secure it in the raised position.

46 Offer up the subframe one side at a time, and hold it by securing the suspension lower arm balljoints to the steering knuckle assemblies. Refit the subframe bolts, ensuring that the washers are refitted correctly, and tightening the bolts only lightly at this stage.

47 The subframe must now be aligned on the underbody. Ford specify the use of service tool 15-097, which is a pair of tapered guides, with attachments to hold them in the subframe as it is refitted. However, since the working diameter of these tools is 20.4 mm, and since the corresponding aligning holes in the subframe and underbody are respectively 21 mm and 22 mm in diameter, there is a significant in-built tolerance possible in the subframes alignment, even if the correct tools are used. If these tools are not available, you can align the subframe by eye, centring the subframe aligning holes on those of the underbody, and using the marks made on removal for assistance. Alternatively, you can align the subframe using a tapered drift (such as a clutch-aligning tool), or even a deep socket spanner of suitable size (see illustrations).

4.47A Tighten subframe mounting bolts (A) while ensuring that alignment
4.47A Tighten subframe mounting bolts (A) while ensuring that alignment remains correct - Ford service tools (B) shown in use here . . .

4.47B . . . but alternative methods using ordinary hand tools can achieve
4.47B . . . but alternative methods using ordinary hand tools can achieve acceptable alignment, with care

48 Once the subframe is aligned as precisely as possible, tighten its bolts to the specified torque wrench setting without disturbing its position. Recheck the alignment once all the bolts are securely tightened.

49 With the subframe aligned and securely fastened, the engine/transmission unit must now be positioned precisely, before the mountings can be reassembled. Ford specify the use of service tool 21-172; this is a fixture bolted to the subframe in place of the engine/transmission front mounting, so that when the mountings centre bolt is refitted, it is held 60 mm above the subframes top surface, and offset 20 mm to the rear of the mountings subframe bolt holes (centres). DIY mechanics are advised to obtain the Ford tool; the only alternative is to have a copy fabricated (see illustration).

4.49 Special tool required to hold engine/transmission unit precisely, so
4.49 Special tool required to hold engine/transmission unit precisely, so that mountings can be tightened into correct position

50 Fasten the tool to the subframe in place of the engine/transmission front mounting, and lightly tighten the mountings centre bolt. Refit the engine/transmission mountings in the following sequence:
(a) Tighten the left-hand mountings nuts to the specified torque wrench setting - do not allow the mounting to twist as it is tightened (see illustration).

4.50A Do not allow the left-hand mounting to twist as its nuts (arrowed) are
4.50A Do not allow the left-hand mounting to twist as its nuts (arrowed) are tightened

(b) Tighten the right-hand mountings four bracket-to-engine nuts to the specified torque wrench setting.

(c) Slowly release the hoist so that the weight of the engine/transmission unit is taken by the mountings.

(d) Tighten the right-hand mountings two bracket-to-mounting nuts to the specified torque wrench setting - do not allow the mounting to twist as it is tightened (see illustration).

4.50B Tighten the right-hand mountings four bracket-to-engine nuts (A),
4.50B Tighten the right-hand mountings four bracket-to-engine nuts (A), release the hoist, then tighten the two bracket-tomounting nuts (B). Do not allow mounting to twist

(e) Reassemble the engine/transmission rear mounting, tightening the fasteners to the specified torque wrench settings; tighten the centre bolt last.

(f) Refit the steering gear to the subframe; if the Ford service tool is used to tighten the bolts from underneath the vehicle (see Chapter 10 for details), note that a torque wrench which can tighten in an anticlockwise direction will be required.

(g) Unbolt the special tool from the front mounting, refit the mounting - do not forget the wiring connector bracket - and tighten first the mountings bolts/nuts, then its centre bolt, to their respective specified torque wrench settings (see illustrations).

4.50C Unbolt special tool . . .
4.50C Unbolt special tool . . .

4.50D . . . then refit front mounting - do not forget wiring connector
4.50D . . . then refit front mounting - do not forget wiring connector bracket - tighten the mountings nuts first, then its centre bolt

51 Refit the bottom mounting rubbers to the radiator - ensure that both are the correct way up - then refit the radiator mounting brackets to the subframe, ensuring that each is returned to its correct (marked) location, and tightening the bolts to the torque wrench setting specified. Remove the split pins, and secure the coolant hose connections (where necessary).

52 Refit the air conditioning accumulator/ dehydrator (where appropriate) to the subframe.

53 Tighten the two bolts securing the power steering system pipes to the right-hand side of the subframe.

54 Fasten each front suspension lower arm balljoint and track rod end to their respective steering knuckles, and both anti-roll bar links to their respective suspension strut. Note the flexible brake hose bracket attached to each link stud (see Chapter 10 for details).

55 Where the vehicle is fitted with manual transmission, swivel the linkage around to the front, tighten its rear fasteners, then refit the gear linkage heat shield. Reconnect the gearchange linkage and transmission support rods to the transmission, adjusting the linkage using the marks made on removal (see Chapter 7, Part A, for details).

56 Re-install the remaining components and fasteners in the reverse order of removal.

57 Add coolant, engine oil and transmission fluids as needed (see Chapter 1).

58 Run the engine, and check for proper operation and the absence of leaks. Shut off the engine, and recheck the fluid levels.

59 Remember that, since the front suspension subframe and steering gear have been disturbed, the wheel alignment and steering angles must be checked fully and carefully as soon as possible, with any necessary adjustments being made. This operation is best carried out by an experienced mechanic, using proper checking equipment; the vehicle should therefore be taken to a Ford dealer or similarlyqualified person for attention.


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